Currently mining companies are required to meet very tight environmental standards for operation and closure, to ensure that the mining area is intervened in a controlled way, ant that, by the end of the activity it is returned to its initial condition, close to original or in some cases, recovered from previous environmental liabilities. The conservation of ecological values is extremely important nowadays, and there is even transnational regulation for preservation of nature.

The impacts on flora and vegetation due to a mining project’s implementation are mainly from activities that promote the destruction of vegetation, such as land clearing and stripping. Due to the characteristics of the activity, the removal of vegetation is inevitable throughout the extraction area (for open pit exploitation) or areas of access and support infrastructure installation (underground exploitation).

Also the removal of fertile soil layer, through actions of pickling and slope rising, the increase of erosion and elimination of the soil seed bank, create difficulties to the natural regeneration of plant species. The emission of dust and gases, mainly related to transportation, also cause changes in vegetation, especially around the exploitation area.

The destruction of vegetation due to mining operations results in direct loss of biotopes for the fauna, which leads to movement of some animal species to areas not intervened. The loss of biotopes is not solely responsible for scaring the species. The visual impact, noise and dust cause to a greater or lesser extent, the movement of wildlife species.

VISA Consultores conducts characterization studies of the potential natural vegetation as well as the characterization of plant communities present in the intervention area. In terms of fauna,the studies consist in the determination of various biological parameters, including the specific composition of zoocenoses, the relative abundance of certain species and their presence along the annual cycle.